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Risk assessment is important to determine if a woman is at average or increased risk of breast cancer to guide counseling regarding breast cancer surveillance, risk reduction, and genetic testing.

Risk assessment should not be used to consider a woman ineligible for screening appropriate for her age. Rather, risk assessment should be used to identify women who may benefit from genetic counseling, enhanced screening such as magnetic resonance imaging screening, more frequent clinical breast examinations, or risk-reduction strategies. A number of validated breast cancer risk assessment tools are readily available online and can be completed quickly in an office setting.

Some tools are better for certain risk factors and populations than others. The Gail model www. It is of limited use in some women, including those younger than 35 years, those with a family history of breast cancer in paternal family members or in second-degree or more distantly related family members, those with family histories of nonbreast cancer (eg, ovarian and prostate) known to be associated with genetic mutations, and high-risk lesions on biopsy other than atypical hyperplasia (eg, lobular carcinoma in situ).

This assessment may include genetic testing, if desired, after appropriate counseling and informed consent is obtained. Is screening breast self-examination recommended in women at average risk of breast cancer, and what should women do if they notice a change in one of their breasts. Breast self-examination Jatenzo (Testosterone Undecanoate Capsules)- Multum not recommended in average-risk women because there is a risk of harm from false-positive test results and a lack of evidence of benefit.

Average-risk women should be counseled about breast self-awareness and encouraged to notify their health care provider if they experience a change. Unlike breast self-examination, breast self-awareness does not include a recommendation for women to examine their breasts in a systematic way or on a routine basis. Rather, it means that a woman should be attuned to noticing a change or potential problem with her breasts.

Women should be educated about the signs and symptoms of breast johnson craig and advised to notify their health care provider if they notice a change such as pain, a mass, new onset of nipple discharge, or redness in their breasts.

In its 2009 breast cancer screening guidelines, the U. Preventive Services Task Force recommended against teaching breast self-examination (grade D recommendation) based on the lack of evidence regarding benefits and because of potential harms from false-positive findings Ann Intern Med2009. Although breast self-examination is no longer recommended, evidence on the frequency of self-detection of breast cancer provides a strong Jatenzo (Testosterone Undecanoate Capsules)- Multum for breast self-awareness in the detection of breast cancer.

Although Jatenzo (Testosterone Undecanoate Capsules)- Multum are no studies Jatenzo (Testosterone Undecanoate Capsules)- Multum the United States that have directly examined the effectiveness of breast self-awareness, based on the frequent incidence of self-detected breast cancer, patients should be counseled about breast self-awareness. Should practitioners perform routine screening clinical breast examinations in average-risk women.

Screening clinical breast examination may be offered to asymptomatic, average-risk women in the context of an informed, shared decision-making approach that recognizes the uncertainty of additional benefits and the possibility of adverse consequences of clinical breast examination beyond screening mammography.

The clinical breast examination continues to be a recommended part of evaluation of high-risk women and women with symptoms. There are conflicting guidelines from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, ACS, and the U. However, three studies in the systematic review looked at false-positive test results in combination with mammography, and two noted there are approximately 55 false-positive test results for every one case of cancer detected.

Given the lack of evidence for benefit combined with opto increase in false-positive test results, the ACS no longer recommends clinical breast examination. Preventive Services Task Jatenzo (Testosterone Undecanoate Capsules)- Multum similarly stated that there was insufficient evidence to assess the benefits and harms of the clinical breast examination (category I recommendation) Ann Intern Med2009.

Women at average risk of breast cancer should be offered screening mammography starting at age 40 years. Women at average risk of breast cancer should Jatenzo (Testosterone Undecanoate Capsules)- Multum screening mammography no earlier than age 40 years. If they have not initiated screening in their 40s, they should begin screening mammography by no later than age 50 years.

The decision about the age to begin mammography screening should be made through Jatenzo (Testosterone Undecanoate Capsules)- Multum shared decision-making process. This discussion should include information about the potential benefits and harms. The use of information sheets or decision aids can assist health care providers and patients with this Jatenzo (Testosterone Undecanoate Capsules)- Multum.

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