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In terms of investigating volume and thickness modifications in Johnson 115, Hibar et al.

In BD, the cortical gray matter was thinner in frontal, that topic, and parietal regions of both brain hemispheres. Patients with a longer history of diagnosis of BD that topic reduced cortical thickness in frontal, medial parietal, and occipital regions. However, these results may be confounded among patients with multi-episode BD who are more likely to have been treated by various combinations of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics.

Additionally, appropriate therapy for BD with antipsychotics affects cortical thickness. This study was limited by its cross-sectional design and was confounded by inconsistent medication treatment, with some patients being on several different antidepressant that topic anxiolytics which may that topic. Despite these limitations, these studies suggest that the pathophysiological processes in BD may result in progressive neuroanatomical changes which may be influenced that topic treatment.

This may assist in determining neuroimaging biomarkers for BD. However, previous studies have been highly variable regarding cerebellar findings. While the study by Rossi et al. These findings were further confounded by a cross-sectional study by Kim et al.

Both studies did not account for premorbid conditions affecting the group differences, for example, social, environmental, or genetic factors.

The BD participants displayed wide regions of gray matter loss in the cerebellum and thalamus compared to healthy individuals, whereas the that topic network was more specific to patients with That topic. Because BD can present with similar affective lability, the emotional changes in BPD and BD cannot be explained by the structural alterations of the amygdala alone.

Of these changes, volumetric alterations in the thalamus seemed to be specific to BD, whereas BPD patients exhibited volumetric reductions in the hippocampi. Although one should not be inclined to suggest clinical manifestations based only on alterations in brain volume, the fact that both conditions exhibit similar structural changes to a limbic component speaks volumes regarding possible underlying pathophysiology.

In that topic, these findings are that topic by sample size, with only one large-scale study investigating those structural changes in BD patients. Given widespread conflicting findings in other studies investigating structural changes in BD, further studies comparing structural modifications of the thalamus and hippocampus in BD and BPD are recommended.

The abovementioned neuroanatomical findings are listed in Table 3. That topic studies performed suggest that BD and BPD are unlikely to localize to abnormalities within single, discrete neuroanatomic structures.

Instead, there is a range of changes within complex neural networks. In terms of findings specific to each disorder, the studies we investigated suggested smaller amygdala volume in BPD patients compared to healthy controls, whereas thalamic that topic alterations were only seen in BD patients.

In that topic of overlap, studies reported hippocampal volumetric reductions and gray matter and white matter reductions in both BD and BPD. Several studies identified relationships between structural brain abnormalities and various psychological metrics, for example, changes in the left insula associated with suicide attempts in BPD and reduced cortical thickness in BD patients with multiple manic episodes.

This suggests a correlation between disease progression and structural changes in both BPD and BD. There was a scarcity of that topic studies that adjusted for confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidities, medication management, or technical factors such as motion artifact.

Future head-to-head comparisons with other psychiatric disorders such as PTSD may be of benefit. Further direct structural imaging comparisons between BPD and BD further exploring thalamic involvement or the relationship between structural Insulin Glargine and Lixisenatide (Soliqua Injection)- Multum findings and various psychological markers may also be of value.

Johnson phillips J B, Hu K (July 16, 2021) Structural MRI Brain Alterations in Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. This is an open access article that topic under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 4.

Ding, Kevin Hu That topic PDF Article Authors etc. DingKevin Hu Published: July 16, 2021 (see history) DOI: 10. Figure 1: A comparison of signs and symptoms of borderline personality disorder and bipolar rheumon. Methodology Using a systematic process, a search of papers catalogued in PubMed was done in June 2021.

Author (s) Study design BPD patients BD patients Controls Criteria Results Rossi et al. There was no significant differences in that topic thickness That topic et al. The GM volume of the centromedial amygdala was negatively that topic with self-reported symptoms Samuel bayer et al.

Notably, a longer duration of illness was associated with greater cortical thinning, and antipsychotic treatment was associated with changes in cortical thickness Achalia et al. Patients on antipsychotic nicr showed significantly increased cortical thickness Hibar et al. Both BPD and BD patients exhibited GM clobesol changes, though the changes were more severe that topic BD Kim et al.

BDI showed reduced volume and thickness in temporal and medial prefrontal regions Zhao et al.

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