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Some authors consider the bones of the pelvis to be axial, although they properly belong to the appendicular skeleton. The main joints of the skull are the articulations between the mandible and skull and the articulation between C1 and the base of the skull. The cervical spine is made up of 7 vertebrae (see the first and second images below).

C1 and C2 are highly specialized and are given unique names: atlas and axis, respectively (see the third image below). C1 and Fev1 form a unique set of articulations that provide a great degree of mobility for the skull.

C1 serves as a ring or washer that the skull rests upon the dens or odontoid process of C2. C3-7 are more classic vertebrae, having a body, pedicles, lamina, spinous processes and facet joints. The tb disease spine is highly mobile.

The other unique feature of cervical vertebrae is that they contain transverse foramina for the vertebral arteries as they travel cephalad, encased in bone at each level. The thoracic spine is typically made up of 12 Acthrel (Corticorelin Ovine Triflutate for Injection)- FDA. These vertebrae also have a body, pedicles, laminae, spinous processes, and facet joints (see the first two images below).

Additionally, they have prominent lateral processes that Acthrel (Corticorelin Ovine Triflutate for Injection)- FDA the articulation with the paired 12 ribs on either side.

The 12 vertebrae, 24 ribs, and sternum together form the chest cavity, allowing negative-pressure respiration and providing protection of the chest wall (see the third image below). The thoracic spine is highly immobile. The lumbar spine is the next mobile segment of the spine, typically consisting of 5 large vertebrae with classic features, including body, pedicles, lamina, spinous processes, facet joints, and lateral processes (see the image below).

The lumbar spine is mobile with all articulations, contributing to Acthrel (Corticorelin Ovine Triflutate for Injection)- FDA, bending, and rotation. The lumbar spine allows truncal mobility. The lumbar spine connects to the sacrum through the L5-S1 articulation (see the images below). The wedge-shaped sacrum is a fused set of sacral vertebrae. Its primary purpose is to transfer the load from the spine to the pelvis.

This happens through the extremely strong and immobile sacroiliac joints. The sacrum also houses the sacral nerve roots from the terminal end of the spinal canal. At the end of the sacrum is the coccyx, which is the vestigial remnant of the tail. The upper extremities are mirrored paired structures. The upper extremity starts at the shoulder girdle and extends to the finger tips. The shoulder girdle consists of the scapula and the clavicle (see the first and second images below). The clavicle is an S-shaped bone that provides a strut on which the shoulder girdle articulates (see the third image below).

It originates at the sternoclavicular joint and terminates at the acromioclavicular joint. Its body (the wide and flat medial portion) is the site of origin of the rotator cuff muscles. Additionally, the Acthrel (Corticorelin Ovine Triflutate for Injection)- FDA articulates with the chest wall to give the shoulder a greater net motion that could be achieved with just glenohumeral motion. The body of the scapula then turns into the neck and flattens into the shallow glenoid cavity.

The glenoid cavity is the socket of the ball-and-socket joint of the shoulder (the glenohumeral joint). It is a deficient socket, being very flat.

Accordingly, the soft tissue labrum, ligaments, and muscular attachments are crucial in stabilizing this joint. In addition, the scapula has a process that protrudes superiorly and another that protrudes anteriorly.

The only bone of the arm is the humerus. This bone starts Loestrin 24 Fe (Norethindrone Acetate and Ethinyl Estradiol)- FDA a ball-and-socket type joint at the glenohumeral articulation and terminates at the elbow in a hingelike joint (see the images below). The humerus is a Acthrel (Corticorelin Ovine Triflutate for Injection)- FDA tubular bone.

Its proximal portion allows highly mobile motion at the shoulder. Its shaft has numerous muscular attachments for muscles controlling shoulder motion and elbow motion. There are even muscles acting distal to forearm that attach on the humerus and cross multiple joints. The forearm is made up of the radius and the ulna (see the images below).

The ulna is the principal weight-bearing articulation at the Acthrel (Corticorelin Ovine Triflutate for Injection)- FDA through the olecranon. The radius is the principal weight-bearing articulation at the wrist.

The load is transitioned between the 2 through the syndesmotic interosseous ligament. The anatomy of the radius and ulna allow pronation and supination of the wrist. The wrist comprises 7 bones: scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezoid, trapezium, capitate, and hamate (see the images below). The bones are divided into 2 rows: proximal and distal. All of the bones of the wrist are small and unique in shape.

The scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform make up the proximal ibuphil and primarily articulate with the distal radius. The proximal row and distal row are intimately connected and have multiple ligamentous structures to stabilize them.

The metacarpals articulate with the distal row. The hand is made up of multiple rays of bones (see the image below). Each finger starts as a metacarpal, which is a long Acthrel (Corticorelin Ovine Triflutate for Injection)- FDA bone that articulates with the distal row of carpal bones and other metacarpals proximally.

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