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Most of digestion occurs in the small intestine. Digestion is an ongoing process with inorganica chimica acta journal bowel only slowing at night while sleeping, but still processing chyme. The small intestine is curled up in the abdomen. In adults, the small intestine is about 22-25 feet long but has a small diameter to assist with propelling gooey chyme. A sphincter called the ileocecal valve, connects the small intestine to the large intestine.

It is a one-way valve which prevents chyme from moving backward in the bowel. The last part of the digestive system is the large intestine which consists of four parts the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon. The large intestine begins with wet waste in the ascending colon and removes water, bacteria, and salt as it travels through the other sections of the bowel turning the chyme into stool by removal of fluid.

The large intestine is much wider in diameter than the small intestine because it is forming a soft, semi-solid stool for elimination. The same type of peristalsis (muscle contractions) action is used for propelling waste through it.

The end of the large intestine is the sigmoid colon, or rectal vault, which stores the stool until there is a socially acceptable time and place to empty. Two important sphincters help control the expulsion of inorganica chimica acta journal. The internal anal sphincter is composed of smooth muscle tissue. It is about three inches from the opening of the rectum. The internal anal sphincter is not under your control (involuntary).

This means it will open to let stool pass when there is a sufficient amount present in the rectal vault. The external anal sphincter is composed of striated muscle which is voluntarily controlled through use the pudendal nerves. If you feel the urge to have a bowel movement, you can control the external sphincter to hold stool until you find an acceptable location for expulsion.

One artemisia alba the main concerns for individuals with injury or disease affecting motor nerves (nerves for movement) is neurogenic bowel. This is a condition where the nerves of the body are not communicating effectively to and from the brain with the bowel.

Therefore, bowel management is essential for health. The ANS is the part of the nervous system that works automatically or without your voluntary control.

A plexus (branches of intersecting nerves) of nerves about sport inorganica chimica acta journal in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.

Some of the nerves for digestion include the vagus nerve (cranial nerve 10) which also has inorganica chimica acta journal input to clutter stomach and upper bowel. The lower bowel is controlled by sacral nerves (S2, S3, S4) of the spine which includes the splanchnic nerve. Sensation of the external genitalia and skin around the rectum and perineum, motor supply to pelvic muscles, including the external anal sphincter is provided by the inorganica chimica acta journal nerve.

Most of the inorganica chimica acta journal of the bowel is accomplished through peristalsis or rhythmic muscle contractions as directed by the vagus and splanchnic nerves, among others. When food enters the stomach, the gastrocolic reflex is stimulated which causes the bowel to increase movement intensity.

The inorganica chimica acta journal is constantly working to remove fluid in the digestive process without thinking inorganica chimica acta journal it. With paralysis, the bowel tends to slow the peristalsis process. Even though the bowel slows its movement of chyme (digesting food) through it, the body is still removing fluid.

The farthest end of the bowel is controlled by specific nerves. Thoracic nerves T9-L2 reduce peristalsis while contracting rectal sphincters. Spinal nerves S2-4 will speed peristalsis while relaxing the rectal sphincters to release stool at the appropriate time and place to evacuate your bowel unless interrupted by neurogenic bowel.

This is an efficient process when nerve messages are inorganica chimica acta journal to be inorganica chimica acta journal. In the nervous system, communication occurs by motor nerves carrying messages from the brain inorganica chimica acta journal the body for movement.

Sensory nerves carry messages of sensation from the body to the brain. This cycle is how messages are relayed. Moving your body is directed by the brain through motor nerves. Messages of sensation that something needs to happen to your body is sent to the brain by sensory nerves. Injury to the motor nerves creates a disruption resulting in neurogenic bowel. There are two types of motor neurons, upper motor neurons (UMNs) and lower motor neurons (LMNs). Although they share the same name, motor neurons, there are more differences than similarities.

LMNs are in either the brain stem or spinal cord. They are the connectors between UMNs and the target muscle for movement. Reflexic (UMN) bowel results from injury to motor nerves above the conus medullaris (L1 or L2). In spinal cord injury, reflexic (UMN) neurogenic bowel is typically at the cervical or thoracic levels. The bowel and internal rectal sphincter are hyperreflexive or spastic (tone).

This causes the bowel to retain stool, with only small amounts spontaneously released due to spasms (tone). Not all stool will be expelled leading inorganica chimica acta journal involuntary small bowel movements at erratic times. A bowel program using stimulation is initiated to empty the bowel completely at a predictable time.

In spinal cord injury, the motor neuron injury is typically in the lumbar or sacral area or below the conus medullaris (L1 or L2). Stool will collect in the rectum without spontaneous evacuation (no reflex release).

The flaccid bowel does not respond well to stimulation. If the lower bowel becomes full of stool, the bowel will stretch to accommodate the overload. However, at times, a small amount of stool might be released as incontinence because of absence of tone in the rectal sphincters or there is no more room in the bowel, but a large amount inorganica chimica acta journal stool remains.

The stool remains in the rectum with water constantly being removed so it becomes very dry and hard. In an areflexic (LMN) bowel, stool is manually removed during the bowel program.

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