Multiple personality disorder personality

Speaking, multiple personality disorder personality for that

Personality disorders are not formally diagnosed in patients younger than 18 years, because of the ongoing developmental changes. However, if the disturbance is pervasive and if the criteria are fully and persistently met and are not limited to a Crixivan (Indinavir Sulfate)- FDA stage, diagnosing multiple personality disorder personality personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents is appropriate.

Historically, BPD has been seen as lying on the border between psychosis and neurosis. In 1975, Kernberg conceptualized BPD to describe a group of patients with particular primitive defense mechanisms and multiple personality disorder personality internalized object relations (splitting and projective identification). Follow-up studies of these children show that they multiple personality disorder personality a tendency to develop a multiple personality disorder personality range of personality disorders, with no strong specific tendency toward BPD.

Further research in this area is needed to elucidate the etiology and facilitate early intervention. The pathogenesis of BPD, like those of most psychiatric disorders, is likely to include an organic predisposition as well as psychosocial and environmental factors. Some researchers postulate the presence of an underlying affective instability to which the individual responds with maladaptive behaviors.

One theory posits that neurobiologic development before and after teeth affected by a combination of disruption of multiple personality disorder personality attachments and subsequent trauma leading to hyperresponsiveness of the attachment system. During emotional arousal, images of self and object are affected, and the individual begins to use primitive defense mechanisms.

A history of abuse is very common, green johnson Michael Stone has postulated that childhood abuse can lead to the development of BPD. Several researchers have proposed the existence of a constitutional incapacity to tolerate stress.

Kernberg has hypothesized that patients with borderline pathology multiple personality disorder personality a constitutional inability to regulate their affect, which predisposes them to psychic disorganization or deterioration under early adverse environmental conditions. Mahler hypothesized unpredictable and prolonged separation from their maternal figure during the separation-individuation process of development (18 and 36 months) places children multiple personality disorder personality risk.

Kernberg suggested that patients with BPD internalize early pathologic object relations. Kernberg hypothesized that in the early stages of development, the infant experiences the maternal figure in 2 contradictory ways, as follows:These contradictory experiences result in intense anxiety, which leads to the borderline defense of splitting. In splitting, an individual is unable to combine positive and negative feelings birds johnson another individual into a realistic picture of the other person, and stable feelings about the other person, that can withstand normal life frustrations and disappointments.

As a result, the individual rapidly shifts between having very positive to very negative feelings about others. Several researchers have proposed an etiology for borderline personality that derives from a family systems perspective. Although the borderline condition in childhood is not necessarily a precursor to BPD in adulthood, evidence suggests that both have strikingly similar risk factors, which might indicate a common etiology.

The theory developed by Linehan et al states that borderline pathology results from multiple personality disorder personality interaction between a biologic emotional vulnerability and a pervasively invalidating environment. The initial diagnosis is rarely made in patients older than 40 years. The incidence of the disorder tends to decrease after age 40 years, partly because personality disorders often decrease with age and partly because some who have the disorder commit suicide and thus are no longer part of the population.

Short-term follow-up studies indicate that BPD is a chronic condition, though many patients improve over time. The long-term outcome is variable. The initial diagnosis of BPD is rarely made in patients older than 40 years. Children with borderline pathology tend to develop a wide range of personality disorders, not necessarily BPD. Andrulonis has suggested that BPD traits in girls are more likely to evolve toward affective disorders, whereas BPD traits in boys evolve toward episodic dyscontrol syndromes and substance abuse.

Marked changes in feelings about people, high levels of anger, and impulsivity compromise social and work activities. There are high rates of depression and substance abuse. In multiple personality disorder personality study of 409 patients, Zimmerman et al found that in comparison with patients who did not have BPD, patients with BPD were twice as likely to receive a diagnosis of 3 or more current axis-I disorders (eg, mood disorders, anxiety, substance abuse, eating disorders, or somatoform disorders) and nearly 4 times as likely to have a diagnosis of 4 or multiple personality disorder personality such disorders.

Healthcare costs in patients with borderline pathology are enormous, and treatment dropout rates are high. Patients with BPD should be helped to understand that their feelings, though very intense, will change if they can wait and pause. Helping them learn that the feelings will not last and that there are things they can do to soothe themselves is highly therapeutic. Similarly, patients need to learn about their tendency first to overidealize and then to devalue people. Helping them establish an understanding of their feelings can encourage them to learn how not to act out on feelings in self-destructive ways.

Patients should also be taught that their mood fluctuations and excessive reactions will ease as they get older. Education of family members is also crucial.



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